Higher Education

Relationship Rich Education: Feedback as a Tool for Learning, Belonging, & Achievement

See how relational feedback provides a flexible, scalable, equitable, and humane approach to support learning, belonging, and achievement in higher education

View the presentation slides

About the Session

Decades of research demonstrate that the quality of student-instructor and student-student interactions are foundational to engaging, inclusive, and purposeful learning for all students, and particularly for new majority students. Drawing on more than 400 interviews with students and instructors across U.S. higher education, in this session we will explore relational feedback as a flexible, scalable, equitable, and humane approach to support learning, belonging, and achievement.

About the Presenter

Peter Felten is executive director of the Center for Engaged Learning, assistant provost for teaching and learning, and professor of history at Elon University. He works with colleagues on institution-wide teaching and learning initiatives, and on the scholarship of teaching and learning. In his teaching, Peter aims to help students think critically and write clearly about history and higher education. As a scholar, he has published six books about undergraduate education including most recently (with Leo Lambert), Relationship-Rich Education: How Human Connections Drive Success in College (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2020). He has served as president of the International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (2016-17) and also of the POD Network (2010-2011), the U.S. professional society for educational developers. He is co-editor of the International Journal for Academic Development, on the advisory board of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), and a fellow of the John N. Gardner Institute for Excellence in Undergraduate Education, a foundation that works to advance equity in higher education.


Thanks so much for the warm welcome, hello, everyone, it’s great that you’re all here, I love the chat, which shows me that you’re here from all over, from Nova Scotia to San Diego and Alaska to Florida and many, many places in between. It’s an honor to be here with you all at the very first ReAction conference. This is fabulous. I hope you keep using the chat.

I hope you can engage with each other and put questions in there that we can talk about as things unfold. What I’m going to do is share a little bit of research about relationship to education and how feedback in particular, relational feedback is really a powerful tool for learning and belonging and achievement for all of our students. As we’ve said in the introduction, I know all of the expertise in this virtual Zoom room is not on this end of the screen. And so there’s going to be an opportunity for you to share some of your good practices and what works for you and some of the challenges you face too.

So expect that first a little bit of research and then a little bit of interaction where you’re sharing some things and we’re talking about that, then some more research from me. But first, really the foundational bit of research that I want to make sure I think you probably know this already. Anecdotally, maybe it from studying, studying higher education or education in your context, which is that the quality of the relationship students build with instructors, with their peers, with staff are absolutely crucial for their learning, their belonging, their success. And in fact, if you look at the research, this citation is from this big, huge book 650 pages that synthesizes research on American higher Ed and I actually had it on my desk by accident, but there we go, show and tell.

It synthesizes decades of research on higher education, and it says that probably the most important factor for everything good that can happen with students is the quality of the interactions they form with their peers and with their instructors and with staff. And I want to make sure you understand a couple of things about that broad research. One is it’s about quality, more than quantity. Right, so one strong relationship they build, one strong set of interactions, maybe through feedback, can be really transformational for students.

In fact, there was a Gallup and Purdue sponsored study. Poll of 30,000 college graduates was published in 2014. And what this poll found was really surprising and what they found fundamentally was that if an alumni, someone who graduated at 10 years or more before the poll, reported having one professor who inspired them to learn, challenge them to follow their dreams, and knew them as a person. One that alone, 10 plus years later, was more than twice as likely as their peers to report thriving professionally and personally.

So the kinds of interactions we have don’t just help students during education. They can have lasting effects on them throughout their life. We’ll talk about why that is a little bit. So one thing to know is it’s about quality, more than quantity.

Your interactions with your students can be really powerful, really transformational. Second thing to know about this is the research is very clear that the quality of these relationships are extra important for new majority students, for students of color, for first generation students, for students who are older than traditional aged undergraduates. What that means is positive interactions with peers, with faculty, with staff are particularly beneficial for new majority students, and negative interactions or lack of interactions, particularly damaging. So again, the kind of relational feedback you give can be really transformational for all your students, but can be particularly essential for new majority students feeling like they belong, that they can succeed and that they can learn, right?

That’s what the research that has been going on for decades demonstrates. So as we mentioned before, my colleague Leon and I wrote a book, we came out in 2020 in the fall of 2020, where we tried to dig into that research a little more and illustrated by interviewing just about 400 students, faculty and staff around the US. We went to all sorts of institutions, 29 different institutions, all over the country, back when you could fly safely without a mask. And we asked a couple of students and several faculty and staff about their experiences.

And what we were trying to do is understand why, if we know relationships are so powerful for student learning, for students belonging for student success, why don’t we organize our courses? Why don’t we organize our curriculum, our programs, our institutions as if this was the central factor in student success? And so the stories we collected for that are, I’m going to share some of those stories with you in a little bit. We also are writing a follow up book for Johns Hopkins that’s aimed at students.

And so in 2021 we interviewed dozens and dozens more students about their experience during COVID and their experience during online remote education. You’ll get a little of that, too, and when I share some of those quotes from our interviews to colleagues from GoReact, Sarah and Jordan, they’re going to be the voices of the quotes. But before I get to my research and sharing some of that and the implications for your work, I want to preview that. I’m going to be asking you, in a minute or two, or five minutes, maybe to share some of your experiences and your knowledge.

But before I do that, one last thing from my book. This is three of the key things we found in those 400 plus interviews why relationships matter so much for students, especially new majority students. First, as you can see that relationships are really essential and having students feel that they’re welcome, that they belong, that they matter, that they’re cared for in higher education. And we heard this over and over from students that higher education can feel like sort of an alien space to a lot of students.

An unfamiliar space, an uncomfortable space. And so being relational, having faculty and staff and peers welcome them, express some degree of care and concern for them is really powerful in enabling students to do the kinds of things they need to do to succeed in higher education. Secondly, what we saw, and again, the research others have done really confirms, is that relationships are perhaps the most powerful way to inspire students to learn. Students told us over and over that they work harder for professors who they feel, know them and care about them.

They say, I don’t want to I don’t want to disappoint that Professor. They also say peers can motivate them and inspire them, especially near peers, when they see other peers who are capable of doing things they’re not capable of doing. Yet that can be really inspiring for students to think about how exciting what’s possible in their own education. Now, the third thing that we found, that I want to just tease out for a second, is that students often approach education as a series of transactions.

As we heard on many of the campuses we visited, the goal of a lot of students is to get in and to get through and to get out. And that’s important, right? We want our students to get through, to get out, to be successful, but we want them to do more than just sort of do the work and get the grades and then get the certificate or get the diploma. Well, we want them to think about, you know, who are they?

Who are they becoming? What are they capable of contributing to a profession, to their family, to their community, to the world? And relationships are just a fundamental way of helping students think about who they are and who they’re becoming, right, and so we saw that in our research, and I want to suggest, you know, tying to the theme of this conference that relational feedback is also just a primary way to do all three of those things. Relational feedback enables students to feel welcomed and cared for.

Relational feedback is a powerful way to inspire students to work. Knowing students feel like there’s a human giving them feedback. A human who knows them. Who, who’s looked carefully at their work.

Who challenges them and supports them, that’s absolutely essential. And then again, relational feedback is a way to help students explore big questions in their lives. And when everybody right now is feeling tired, exhausted and burned out from the last several years, having someone asked, you know, why are you doing this? What do you hope to contribute?

How does this connect? How does this matter for you? Even simple questions like that can really turn sort of a transactional experience of doing work into something that reminds students or reminds ourselves why we’re doing what we’re doing. And that kind of reminder really helps you feel welcome and cared for.

Everyone really inspires you to learn because you’re doing this for a reason. You’re studying nursing. You’re studying sign language. You’re studying history because it matters to you, right?

So this relational feedback we’re giving is really powerful for student learning, belonging and success. It’s a little background, but I know you know this, right, so I’m going to ask you. To either use a device to scan the QR code or in the chat, there’ll be a link posted where you can go and put your own answer to these two questions. We’re going to start one at a time.

So first question is, what do you do already to make your feedback relational? In other words, what works for you and for your students? Because I think there’s a lot of great practices in this Zoom room right now. So I’m going to give you a second to scan the QR code or go to that link that Sarah posted in the chat.

And we’re going to take a look at what you suggested, what works for you already. And then after we look at that for a minute, we’re going to talk. I’m going to ask you to submit about barriers. But first, what works already?

So here we go. And your responses are going to come on and they’ll scroll as we go. So as somebody said make it personal, show, I took time to review their assignments. I love this ask, giving personal examples, greeting them as individuals, getting positive and rewarding comments.

Finding a way to connect specifically to the person the feedback’s intended for. In personalized feedback, weekly check ins. You know, one of the things we heard, someone talks about phone calls we’ve seen that was one of the surprising things that we saw in our research is how important phone calls can be because not all our students have easy access to high bandwidth connections. So just to check in like that can be really important.

Authentic listening. Commenting on everything. Wow it takes a lot, but recording voice feedback. Asking students for professional or personal challenges.

Personalizing this is different types of getting to know you activities, it’s brilliant. Yes, using names in private. Direct responses exactly. One of my favorite studies about all of this is related to Nang’s.

It’s from a large study of large in-person courses at Arizona State University in person introduction to biology courses. And what they found is that professors actually don’t need to know all their students’ names. What they need is students to think the professor cares to know their name. And if students perceive the professor cares to know their name, then that students much more than one could ask for help.

Much more likely to feel valued and much more likely to do their work. So there’s a lot of really great examples here already. Things you do. And one thing I want you to take from the session is that when you’re thinking about relational feedback, you don’t necessarily have to do all new things.

This isn’t about some new tricks or techniques you have to adopt. What I want to encourage you to do is think about what works for you, what works for your students already, and how can you do that more often with even more of your students being really intentional about things like using students’ names, expressing encouragement for students can be so powerful. Right so there’s a lot you do already that works. I’m curious about the second question.

Which is, What are significant barriers to giving that kind of relational feedback, and this should just come up again in your mentee? This is going to be a word cloud, so if you can use very short one word or maybe two word answers and this will gather those answers. And what you’ll see is, you know, how word clouds work is the most frequent response will be the biggest and in the middle. I am not surprised.

Time goes first. And I’ll just let this gather for a minute as your answers come in. So you could see lots and lots of answers coming in. Time is holding very strong right in the center, right because none of us have enough time to do all that.

We’d like to do all that we could do. So one of the things I hope we think about throughout the conference, I’ll give you some ideas about today from our research, but I encourage you to think about throughout the conference is how can you be relational in your feedback, relational and your work with students without spending all of your time? Because I was really inspired by the personalization many of you talked about, but personalization is really hard to scale to a number of students. So thinking about ways where we can use our own time and our students time really productively.

Right so I’ll share this with Sarah and the GoReact team, so if you want to take a look at this later too, it’ll be there. But notice? Notice what’s there? It’s about time.

Challenges are about time and number of students’ attention span technology attitude, which I presume means sort of caring about whether feedback is important or not. Students often don’t know how to use the feedback we give, right? So they might seem to have a bad attitude when, in fact, they’re just struggling to figure out what it means to get feedback in these kinds of settings. I think these are really common.

Let’s talk now a little bit about what the research Leo and I did. Sense, in relation to those challenges that you face, that your students face. And what I want to do now is share some of the quotes from people we interviewed in our research. And again, Sarah and Jordan from GoReact are going to be the readers of this.

In the first quote I want to share is about barriers and about challenges. And it’s from David Latimer, who’s an academic advisor at City Tech in the City University of New York. Tiny bit about David because I think it’s important to know who it is you’re hearing from. When we interviewed David, he described himself as a fourth generation college graduate, which I thought was a really interesting frame.

We think about first Gen but not fourth Gen. David spent most of his career working in the Harlem Children’s zone in New York, working with young Black males, supporting them through middle school and high school and into higher education. And he said after doing that for a couple of decades, he got frustrated by how many students he saw seemingly successful on their way to higher education and then coming back unsuccessful. And he decided to go to the other side to higher education to see what he could do to understand better what was happening there and to enable the students he cared about.

So much these young Black men to be successful. So he became an academic advisor at City Tech in the City University of New York, which serves mostly students of color, mostly low-income students in technical programs at City University. David’s advised literally thousands of these students, and we asked David about the barriers they face, and this is what he told us. Oops!

come on. Students fear, fear, failure and being challenged beyond their limits, they may not have been challenged academically in high school and for the first time are really experiencing academic rigor. They fear embarrassing their families, being afraid to come home and say, I am not achieving in college right now, I am struggling. They fear talking to a professor because a professor represents an intimidating authority figure.

They also resist asking for academic help because that is perceived as meaning you’re not smart. They do not want to go to counseling when they have emotional problems, because that’s for people who are weak. The fear of shame is everywhere. Thanks and I want to be really clear, David is not saying, you know, students are weak.

Students are snowflakes or something like that. What he’s saying is his students and actually many, many, many of our students across North America are like this. They’re often first in their family to go to University. They’ve been successful in getting to where they are academically by working extremely hard on their own.

And as Claude Steele, a psychologist at Stanford who studies these things, says what these kinds of students tend to do is they have one approach. To school, and it’s what still calls over efforting the solution to everything is to work even harder on my own right and over efforting. We’ll get you so far in school that’ll get you so far in life, but eventually you come to places where you need support, you need advice, you need really good feedback from someone on something you don’t understand how to do right and the problem with overreacting. The problem with feeling ashamed, as David says, is that isolates you and what these students really need.

David told us, is to develop effective, help seeking behaviors. So he says his job as an adviser, his job in getting feedback and guidance to students. In a very large way is about helping those students learn how to help themselves to be successful, right? That kind of help seeking behavior is absolutely crucial, he says.

Now we also interviewed, we didn’t know a pandemic was coming, but we didn’t know that a significant number of students studying online or hybrid settings. So one of the places we did interviews with students, faculty and staff is at Southern New Hampshire University in their fully online program. And one of the people we interviewed, Erin Schrier, is a writing coach there, and so she’s worked with lots and lots of students who are studying fully online. And she said they face a really common barrier.

Here’s what she told us. What are the biggest hurdles our students have to overcome is the feeling of being adrift in online classes where they don’t get to see each other face to face. And when they can’t go up to their instructor or TA a friend in class and say, I’m really struggling with this or I’m excited, I’ve learned that, thanks. And that’s, you know, we know this from the last couple of years that we lost a lot of those casual interactions as somebody more than one person wrote, you know, lacking eye contact, lacking casual interactions can be really hard.

To feel like someone knows you, someone can challenge you, that your work matters. And it’s hard when you’re excited, it’s hard when you’re struggling, right? So what do we do about this? Well, the research is really clear and we heard this so much in our interviews.

The next quote is going to come from Matt Smith, who’s at Cal State Dominguez hills, which is a large, comprehensive University in South Central La that serves mostly students of color. And Matt told us in the end, what those students need is really pretty simple. Once students recognize that you care about them, about where they come from, about their goals and what they’re trying to accomplish, then you have a strong foundation for teaching and learning what Matt is describing. If you’re really familiar with the higher education research literature you might recognize as Laura Rendon theory of validation.

Rendon just retired. She’s a scholar in Texas. For decades, she studied students in the American southwest, undergraduates in the American southwest, and what she found is that these students don’t need self-esteem boosts and things like this. That’s not what validation is about.

What these students need is to feel seen as humans to be recognized as a whole human. And when they have that, what Brendan’s work and many, many other scholars now have shown. What Matt Smith Smith describes is when they have this sense that someone knows them as a person cares about them as a person. Again, they’re more likely to feel like they belong.

They’re more likely to develop growth mindsets. They’re more likely to ask for help, they’re more likely to succeed and to graduate. This kind of validation is super powerful. Now, the research on validation ties directly to the research on feedback.

There’s a wonderful study by Derek Darnell Cole, a scholar at University of Southern California, and this is from an old study, but it’s a great study of male undergraduates of color in the US and how they receive feedback from professors. And what Cole’s work demonstrates is these students actually find the way I was trying to give feedback. The feedback sandwich, they find that alienating the old Peter Good writing a paper next time, please have a thesis and some evidence, but you know, keep turning your papers in on time. The kind of feedback sandwich is actually really alienating for male students of color.

And what Cole found is that there’s a way to give validating feedback. You may already do this yourself, but it’s really powerful. I found it works powerfully for all of my students. Validating feedback starts with conveying high standards and expectations.

Paired with the belief that students, you know your students can meet those standards even if they’re not doing it right now, then you offer specific guidance about how to improve and you point to resources, which could be a Writing Center or a tutoring center. Online resources it could be your time, but it doesn’t have to be your time. That kind of feedback, high standards, high belief in capacity and then specific guidance. That kind of feedback validates students of color, male students of color, and I would say all our students of color.

That kind of feedback is really relational and really powerful. So one thing we can do is give that kind of feedback. Now let me give you an example of what validating feedback looks like with a little bit of a twist. This is a story.

It’s one of my favorite stories from our hundreds of interviews. It’s with a student, Josh Rodriguez, who when we interviewed Josh, he told me that he was born and raised in Chicago, first in his family to go to college. He did really well in high school. He knew he wanted to be a nuclear engineer when he grew up.

He got a scholarship to go to the University of Illinois. One semester did well academically, but didn’t feel like he belonged. There really felt like an outsider. And so he withdrew.

He moved back home. He got married. He worked for about 10 years. But still want to be a nuclear engineer, so as his kids were getting towards middle school age, he decided he wanted to be the kind of dad who would show them, you know, our family, we can succeed in college, we can follow our dreams.

So we decided to go back to the local community college. He went to Oakton community college in suburban Chicago, and Josh did something I never would have done. He took the first Glass. Each week back at Oakton was calculus two, and he did that because he’d got an A in calculus 2 at the University of Illinois.

He wants to be a nuclear engineer, so he decides that’s what he’s got to do. First day of class, he told me, was his 30th birthday. This is how he described that experience of going back to college. Early in calculus two, we started getting into really difficult things, and I suddenly began having these feelings like I didn’t belong in this class, that my education, what I was trying to achieve wasn’t possible.

And my goals were just obscenely further away than I thought they were. So we’re going to hear more from Josh in a second, but just notice what he says he doesn’t say early in calculus 2. We started getting into difficult things and I thought, wow, I should have started with calculus 1 or two while math is hard. He thinks my education, what I’m trying to achieve in my life is obscenely further away than I thought.

That’s very different. So let’s follow the story. Here we go. I went to Professor arko to say, I might have to drop out.

He told me, Joshua, I don’t want you to do the homework tonight. I want you to look up imposter syndrome and read about it, then come talk to me. I did that and I learned that this is an extraordinarily common thing among students. That interaction bolstered my confidence to realize that I’m not alone in this and that everyone has these feelings.

I went from contemplating dropping out to getting it, getting tutoring help and then getting an A in the course. Thanks and to follow the story through, I’ve stayed in contact with Josh, and this spring he’s going to graduate from Purdue University with a degree in nuclear engineering, first in his family to graduate. And he would say professor arcos, the reason he’s doing that now. Fun fact about this story.

Professor arko was an adjunct instructor who taught one semester at Oakton community college. So Josh, when he didn’t have a long, deep relationship, they had what some scholars in the field call. Well, they call professor arko a mentor of the moment. A mentor of the moment.

And what it means to be a mentor of the moment is to do what Professor arko did, which is to notice what Josh is really saying, which isn’t the math is too hard for me right now. Well, Josh was really saying is, I think I’m an imposter in college. And then what Professor arko did is what a mentor the moment does is give feedback. That’s really tailored to meet Joshua’s particular needs, which is in this case, really confronting his sense of imposter rather than saying, you know, go back and work harder on your homework.

That kind of feedback validates who Josh is as a person. That kind of feedback is really deeply relational, and that kind of feedback is so powerful. So I just want to remind you again that when you really look at what students are bringing to you and you give them really challenging, tailored feedback supports them, the challenges them, it can be really transformational. You can be a mentor of the moment through one interaction like Professor arko was.

So what do we do with this? Well, one of the places we visited was the City University of New York, and we talked to Donald linderman, who is one of the people who created this program, which is remarkable. It’s called ASAP. You can look it up if you like.

It’s a program for low income first generation students in the city. University of new York, SAP students graduate at three times the rate their peers do. And Donna Lindemann, who helped create this program, said fundamentally, a SAP’s about one thing. This is what she said.

Many of our students haven’t necessarily tapped into the gifts and skills they already have their own tenacity, their own intelligence, we help them understand that they are fully capable, every single one of them of earning their degrees. We ask, what are the things that you work towards and achieved that is essential to them being able to say and believe I am good at things. I can commit to things and I can finish them. Thanks so again, the fundamental part about relational feedback is expressing this, this belief that students are capable even when they’re not showing it.

And I love what Donna and ASAP does, which is not just express this belief in students. I know you can do it. They ask students, where are you successful in your life? What have you achieved in other parts of your life?

How can you learn from that as you work in this program, right? How can we adapt this exactly, as Vera says in the chat, empower students to self empower because if they come out of our interactions, our programs are courses or institutions. With that, they can be successful in anything. One last example of this.

This is from a student we interviewed last summer. We have a long consent process. We don’t have full consent yet to name her and identify her, so we’ll call her. Ellen from Texas.

She was required to take a fully online introductory writing course in college in the first semester of covanta fall semester of 2021. Our 20 20, excuse me, and she was not excited about this course at all, she had a real goal for higher education. It had nothing to do with introduction to writing. But when I asked her about who her mentor was in college, she described this introduction to writing professor, and this is what she said that Professor did.

On some papers, she would have this little paragraph in the comments saying did this super well in your paper and a little bit and that little bit of encouragement, even though I’m not face to face with this teacher at all. Made a world of difference to me. We never met in person or even had a conversation. But she has made a huge positive difference in my education, which is kind of hard to do when you’re not actually interacting with the students in a classroom or on Zoom.

Yeah, the funny story about Ellen is she ended up taking a second course with this professor. She took a 19th century American literature course that had nothing to do with her degree in pensions, which is to be a dietitian. But she loved the feedback she was getting what she felt was so tailored to her that really challenged her and supported her and was, you know, helped her be a better student. So the quality of the feedback, the relations of that feedback was enough to get Ellen to say, I want to spend more time with this professor.

When I interviewed Ellen, she said she was actually hoping some time to get together with this professor and have coffee, but she never, never even met them after two semesters. But still, this was her academic mentor because she felt so seen and so validated by the feedback she was getting. So one thing I want you to think about is the way your feedback, your interactions with students can be so powerful. But as you mentioned, when we’re talking about barriers, time and other demands are so strong for us.

So maybe not everything has to be one on one from us to students. So I want to raise one other issue for you to think about today through the conference in your work, which is the power of relational peer feedback, because we know from the research that peer interactions actually are as powerful, if not more powerful for students. Success student belonging. Student achievement.

Then faculty student interactions and staff student interactions, so setting up using our courses, using our interactions, using our tools as ways to create relational peer feedback is really powerful. You might know some things about this. I want to point you just briefly to some really brilliant new research that’s being done in writing studies where they’ve adopted a phrase that’s used in health care, sometimes but but demonstrated that this works in writing courses in higher education. And the phrase is givers gain.

The idea of givers gain is that the person who receives feedback isn’t the only person who benefits from that feedback. And these scholars Dalhart Davidson, Graham Meeks and others have demonstrated that students who give substantive feedback on peer writing actually become better writers themselves. Right there’s a givers gain. And what does that mean in their research?

Just really briefly, we don’t need someone else to read this. The point is, giving a feedback is a way to practice something that is important for us to be successful, which is revising our own work. So how can we use peer feedback in a relational way in our teaching and our interactions with students as a way to help them empower themselves so they can self empower to use various phrase? What’s this look like in person in practice?

Well, one of the people we interviewed was Peter j. Dixon, a student at LaGuardia Community college, Peter gais, actually from Jamaica. She came to the US on her own to go to school, and she wants to be a teacher. But this is what she said about peer feedback in her education.

I learned to be more self-aware and more confident through peer feedback, especially because everyone in this program pushes me. People here see stuff in me that I don’t see in myself. When I second guess my ability to do something, Ellen will say, Petat, what are you talking about? You’re great at that, or you should work on this when I’m struggling, I remember that Ellen told me, I’m awesome, so I’m awesome.

Thanks and again, recognizing that one way we can, we can magnify and extend the feedback we give to students, and the relationships we develop with students is to help our students develop strong, educationally purposeful peer relationships because it’s great when they think Professor Felton thinks they’re awesome. It’s even better when they think one of their peers thinks they’re amazing. They can do things right. In the end, it comes down to two things.

One, I want to encourage you to keep doing what you’re already doing to provide in the neighborhood relational feedback. But as much as you can be really intentional about this, be really deliberate about this. Do it every day. As one professor we interviewed said one of their challenges, they say, is to remind themselves every day how important their words are for their student success.

So every time we interact, every time we give feedback, how do we help that feedback validate students? And every time we design interactions, how can we design so that feedback, especially peer feedback, is relational and meaningful? Indeed, right? Doing that is really transformational for our students.

It’s the last thing I want to leave you with is a quote from a student we interviewed. Feelgood. When did Aretha this one because it’s short and I love it so much. Guerra at Oakland community college.

She said it only takes meeting that one person who needs to fire within you. From my research, from what I’ve seen of other people’s research, I think relational feedback is the way to ignite a fire within our students. And that feedback could come from me. Right I can do personalized feedback for all my students, but that can be hard.

So again, how can I create situations where students are getting really powerful, really meaningful peer feedback, where they get the benefit of givers gain by giving feedback and the benefit of knowing their peers and their faculty and staff believe in them? That’s so powerful if we can do that and when we do that, we really will ignite a fire within our students when we transform them, transform their educational experiences. I’ve thrown a lot of ideas at you and a lot of references, so I just want a nod to the fact that many, many people are working on this. You can learn from a lot of people, as I’ve learned from you.

Thanks for having me. Josh is going to join us to wrap up. Dr. Felton, thank you so much.

Thank you for being here and sharing such a thoughtful approach. I don’t think I’ll ever forget givers gain. I run all of our strategy and business development here at garbarek, and I’ve been here for almost seven years. I’ve seen it firsthand.

I’ve seen the givers, whether they’re peers or instructors interacting and people connecting at deeper levels. And it’s such a fantastic thing to do and to see and thank you for your effort and your work. We as a group today have a lot of work to do, but the plan is very simple. Everybody who’s joining this session, the Q&A will be disabled for keynotes, obviously, but attendees will only be able to use the chat functionality during keynotes.

But in your breakout sessions, you’ll obviously be able to do the question and answer sessions as well. If you’d like to revisit Dr. Felton’s keynote. Watch for an email from us by the end of April with a link to watch the reaction sessions on demand.

And again, to be able to do this and really kind of put your arms and your mind around some of these concepts. We encourage you to do that as well. Up next, our thoughtful leadership session starting in about a half hour on the half hour, sorry for all four tracks. They’ll be followed immediately by our interactive roundtable discussions.

If you have any questions about session topics times or how to access them, please check your email for a message sent this morning with the full details about the reaction or reaction day one. Thank you everyone for joining. We hope you enjoy this conference.